We discuss the role and position of the researcher, the way we, as researchers, influence the research process and our findings. We will consider ourselves as “Reflexive Practitioners”. This is a road view of ‘practitioner’ that includes, but is not limited, to creative practitioners, workshop leaders and teachers, software engineers and video ethnographers. The reflexive practitioner becomes usefully ‘self-conscious’, makes themselves aware of the baggage they bring to the research. This is not to suggest that we can simply rise above the baggage and become ‘objective’ but we can become aware our preconceptions, how our backgrounds influence us and account for some of that influence when we plan, conduct and evaluate our research.
We also consider how to be reflexive ‘in the moment’ of research, how to develop theories of our practice under real-time conditions, as we conduct research, in real-time. This includes being mindful of surprise, puzzlement, or confusion during real-time research – these often signal of valuable to our research theories but are easily dismissed as ‘noise’ in our data or process.
We analyse cyclic models of reflexive research and compared those models to Action Research and Participatory Action Research cycles and spirals. We note the various ways that we can capture data of our use of these methods while we are doing the practice, from text and image-based research journals in sketchbooks and blogs, to programmers’ comments, to video and audio recordings of workshops, rehearsals and performances.
Image by Lernert & Sander for the Dutch newspaper De Volkskrant.
Developing Reflexivity in Research. For this post see texts by Dr Christina Hughes from Warwick University
Developing Reflexivity in Research: The ‘reflexive turn’ is well documented in social science. Dr Christina Hughes provides an overview of the term reflexivity as it has been developed within various literatures (social science methodology, adult and organisational learning). An analysis of ‘four moments’ of reflexivity is given, together with practical discussion of developing reflexivity in relation to research.
Hughes discusses the relevance of:
Biographical aspects of researcher
issues related to the key social divisions of age
ability as they specifically apply to the research
All knowledge produced through social research is imbued with these aspects of a researcher’s biography.
Class exercise: think about your biography. How might it impact and be part of your approach to your research. How does your biography affect how you see yourself and others, and how others wee you? Are you a black sheep? Does everyone see you that way or do they look at your haircut and see a poodle?
Developing a methodology that incorporates more than one research method.
The term reflexivity covers several fields of knowledge:
- adult learning
- qualitative research
- work-based practice
- including art work
- including self-directed programming
- the studio as a work place
- the sole programmer’s environment and culture/context -working in teams
The key to practitioner success is “developing one’s own continuing theory of practice under real-time conditions” (Argyris and Schon, 1974: 157).
This requires “the practitioner to be able to reflect on his or her own microtheories of action (that is, contextually specific ideas about what works in the real world) and to relate these microtheories to institutional norms and to client expectations’ (Brookfield, 1986: 245).
The process of reflection-in-action is essentially artistic, that is, the practitioner makes judgments and exercises skills for which no explicit rationale has been articulated but in which she nevertheless feels an intuitive sense of confidence’ (Brookfield, 1986: 247).
Understanding and facilitating adult learning: A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices
Brookfield, Stephen. Understanding and facilitating adult learning: A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices. McGraw-Hill Education (UK), 1986.
But, there is a problem, around time – “when time is extremely short, decisions have to be rapid and the scope for reflection is extremely limited” (Eraut, 1994: 145)
“…looking to our experiences, connecting with our feelings, and attending to our theories in use. It entails building new understandings to inform our actions in the situation that is unfolding.
The practitioner allows himself to experience surprise, puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or unique.
He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour.” [My emphasis]
How do we prepare if we know our research will be in real-time? Will there be time for note-taking? Might we forget key moments? What techniques can be used to help capture and record these scenarios so that we can analyse them and reflect on them later ? Video or audio recordings? A colleague who takes notes, with, or, for us?
It is easy to gloss over surprise, puzzlement, or confusion, to dismiss them as ‘noise’ in our data. However, often these feelings, however fleeting are signaling to us that something important is taking place. Try to make note of them. Will they help you pinpoint, after reflection (see PAR) the need for an adaption of your research plan? If you look more closely at your confusion does it show you that you may need to read another text, ask a new question?
Reflective practice involves documenting and supports gathering evidential data as a process.
- Research Diary
- a blog
- physical journal
- PostIt notes
- programming comments
- audio, Siri
- mind maps
Examples of journals